Archive for the ‘ Administration ’ Category

Bucardo – asynchronous PostgreSQL replication system

Bucardo Overview

Bucardo is an asynchronous PostgreSQL replication system, allowing for both multi-master and multi-slave operations. It was developed at by Jon Jensen and Greg Sabino Mullane of End Point Corporation, and is now in use at many other organizations. Bucardo is free and open source software released under the BSD license.

Bucardo is at its heart a Perl daemon that listens for NOTIFY requests and acts on them, by connecting to remote databases and copying data back and forth. All the specific information that the daemon needs is stored in the main bucardo database, including a list of all the databases involved in the replication and how to reach them, all the tables that are to be replicated, and how each is to be replicated.

The first step in running Bucardo is to add two or more databases to the main bucardo database. Once this is done, information on which tables are to be replicated are added, as well as any groupings of tables. Then the syncs are added. Syncs are named replication actions, copying a specific set of tables from one server to another server or group of servers.

via Bucardo/Documentation/Overview – Bucardo.

Apache module ‘mod_pagespeed’

mod_pagespeed Overview.

mod_pagespeed is an open-source Apache module that automatically optimizes web pages and resources on them. It does this by rewriting the resources using filters that implement web performance best practices. Webmasters and web developers can use mod_pagespeed to improve the performance of their web pages when serving content with the Apache HTTP Server.

mod_pagespeed includes several filter that optimize JavaScript, HTML and CSS stylesheets. It also includes filters for optimizing JPEG and PNG images. The filters are based on a set of best practices known to enhance web page performance. Webmasters who set up mod_pagespeed in addition to configuring proper caching and compression on their Apache distribution should expect to see an improvement in the loading time of the pages on their websites.

Three steps to mod_pagespeed


mod_pagespeed is now available as a downloadable binary for i386 and x86-64bit systems, and is tested with two flavors of Linux: CentOS and Ubuntu. The developer may try to use them with other Debian-based and RPM-based Linux distributions.

mod_pagespeed currently only supports Apache 2.2. There are no plans to support earlier versions of Apache, but patches are welcome.

Serve your web pages with Apache and mod_pagespeed

Follow the instructions provided to configure mod_pagespeed with Apache 2.2. In addition, configure caching and compression to get the maximum benefit out of your HTTP Server.

Get familiar with the configuration. There are several filters provided as part of this module, including some exciting experimental features such as CSS outlining. With some experimentation, you can fine-tune the configuration to get the maximum benefit in terms of page performance.

Learn more about Web Performance

The field of web performance is a complex space. While there are many interesting books, blog posts and discussion forums, we provide here a set of pages related to web performance and organize it in terms of contribution to the speed of a web page, whether by serving less bytes -through better compression or caching-, minimizing round-trips and optimizing the order of resource download for the browser.

This documentation is by no means complete or final. We update it regularly with new rules and updates to how the rules apply to modern browsers.

Top 25 Best Linux Commands

Top 25 Best Linux Commands.

25) sshfs name@server:/path/to/folder /path/to/mount/point
Mount folder/filesystem through SSH
Install SSHFS from
Will allow you to mount a folder security over a network.

24) !!:gs/foo/bar
Runs previous command replacing foo by bar every time that foo appears
Very useful for rerunning a long command changing some arguments globally.
As opposed to ^foo^bar, which only replaces the first occurrence of foo, this one changes every occurrence.

23) mount | column -t
currently mounted filesystems in nice layout
Particularly useful if you’re mounting different drives, using the following command will allow you to see all the filesystems currently mounted on your computer and their respective specs with the added benefit of nice formatting.

22) <space>command
Execute a command without saving it in the history
Prepending one or more spaces to your command won’t be saved in history.
Useful for pr0n or passwords on the commandline.

21) ssh user@host cat /path/to/remotefile | diff /path/to/localfile –
Compare a remote file with a local file
Useful for checking if there are differences between local and remote files.

20) mount -t tmpfs tmpfs /mnt -o size=1024m
Mount a temporary ram partition
Makes a partition in ram which is useful if you need a temporary working space as read/write access is fast.
Be aware that anything saved in this partition will be gone after your computer is turned off.

19) dig +short txt <keyword>
Query Wikipedia via console over DNS
Query Wikipedia by issuing a DNS query for a TXT record. The TXT record will also include a short URL to the complete corresponding Wikipedia entry.

18) netstat -tlnp
Lists all listening ports together with the PID of the associated process
The PID will only be printed if you’re holding a root equivalent ID.

17) dd if=/dev/dsp | ssh -c arcfour -C username@host dd of=/dev/dsp
output your microphone to a remote computer’s speaker
This will output the sound from your microphone port to the ssh target computer’s speaker port. The sound quality is very bad, so you will hear a lot of hissing.

16) echo “ls -l” | at midnight
Execute a command at a given time
This is an alternative to cron which allows a one-off task to be scheduled for a certain time.

15) curl -u user:pass -d status=”Tweeting from the shell”
Update twitter via curl

14) ssh -N -L2001:localhost:80 somemachine
start a tunnel from some machine’s port 80 to your local post 2001
now you can acces the website by going to http://localhost:2001/

13) reset
Salvage a borked terminal
If you bork your terminal by sending binary data to STDOUT or similar, you can get your terminal back using this command rather than killing and restarting the session. Note that you often won’t be able to see the characters as you type them.

12) ffmpeg -f x11grab -s wxga -r 25 -i :0.0 -sameq /tmp/out.mpg
Capture video of a linux desktop

11) > file.txt
Empty a file
For when you want to flush all content from a file without removing it (hat-tip to Marc Kilgus).

10) $ssh-copy-id user@host
Copy ssh keys to user@host to enable password-less ssh logins.
To generate the keys use the command ssh-keygen

9) ctrl-x e
Rapidly invoke an editor to write a long, complex, or tricky command
Next time you are using your shell, try typing ctrl-x e (that is holding control key press x and then e). The shell will take what you’ve written on the command line thus far and paste it into the editor specified by $EDITOR. Then you can edit at leisure using all the powerful macros and commands of vi, emacs, nano, or whatever.

8 ) !whatever:p
Check command history, but avoid running it
!whatever will search your command history and execute the first command that matches ‘whatever’. If you don’t feel safe doing this put :p on the end to print without executing. Recommended when running as superuser.

7) mtr
mtr, better than traceroute and ping combined
mtr combines the functionality of the traceroute and ping programs in a single network diagnostic tool.
As mtr starts, it investigates the network connection between the host mtr runs on and HOSTNAME. by sending packets with purposly low TTLs. It continues to send packets with low TTL, noting the response time of the intervening routers. This allows mtr to print the response percentage and response times of the internet route to HOSTNAME. A sudden increase in packetloss or response time is often an indication of a bad (or simply over‐loaded) link.

6 ) cp filename{,.bak}
quickly backup or copy a file with bash

5) ^foo^bar
Runs previous command but replacing
Really useful for when you have a typo in a previous command. Also, arguments default to empty so if you accidentally run:
echo “no typozs”
you can correct it with

4) cd –
change to the previous working directory

3):w !sudo tee %
Save a file you edited in vim without the needed permissions
I often forget to sudo before editing a file I don’t have write permissions on. When you come to save that file and get the infamous “E212: Can’t open file for writing”, just issue that vim command in order to save the file without the need to save it to a temp file and then copy it back again.

2) python -m SimpleHTTPServer
Serve current directory tree at http://$HOSTNAME:8000/

1) sudo !!
Run the last command as root
Useful when you forget to use sudo for a command. “!!” grabs the last run command.